In Landscape series no. 3: “A review of Geology, Climate and Hydrology (Derix, 2016c) we bring perspective to current environmental developments in terms of geological  and (paleo) climate conditions. We place in a simplified manner the geological history of current landforms in a historical perspective and describe its effects on the current hydrology and topology of the landscape. This information is relevant for the understanding of the current environmental issues in the local settings.