The first modern Population Census on Aruba took place in 1960. This Census was organized with the help of the Lago Oil Company. In this first Census a total of 53,199 persons were counted. Consecutive  Censuses were held in 1972, 1981 and 2000. Since 1971 the population census has been combined with a Housing Census. Being small in size allows Aruba to go beyond a mere count of its population in a Census. With its Population and Housing census, the Central Bureau of Statistics of Aruba aims at providing the government and the people of Aruba with a picture of the socio-economic and demographic structure of the country.

The 1991 Census was the first Population and Housing count after Aruba attained its Status Aparte within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Previously, Aruba formed part of the Netherlands Antilles. As such, all Censuses and other statistical surveys were centrally organized by the Bureau of Statistics in Willemstad (Curaçao).

The 2010 Population and Housing Census is the temporary endpoint of half a century of Census taking. The information obtained in five consecutive population counts will allow the Central Bureau of Statistics to describe  Aruba’s  demographic and social history of the last fifty years.